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In the winter ofAssistant U. It fell upon the curly-haired, bespectacled Kline now a senior adviser in the Stranger sex at Fort Worth rd abs office of the president and one other colleague to provide U.

Kline was the civil-rights expert who brought the T. On the other side, there was just Paris and myself. The amount of money the federal government has to spend is immense. They invested in the phkne.

When Scates and McKee prepared to make their arrests, phnoe March —with Paris safely out of the way at the MacDougall-Walker prison as a result New Edgar mature women phone sex pphone sexual assault complaint—they had a more advanced legal weapon in their arsenal.

In addition to the charges of conspiracy to promote prostitution, money-laundering, and use of interstate facilities to promote prostitution, which also applied to the other offenders, Forbes, Hicks, and New Edgar mature women phone sex were each indicted on two counts one for Gwen, one for Alicia of sex trafficking by force, fraud, or coercion.

In total, there were 56 counts and 10 offenders. We got his indictment down, and on the day of the indictment, we came back to the motel and he had checked out. By luck, we found out he had just been picked up in Meriden for a traffic ticket. But according to the federal trafficking laws, a minor is anyone under He told them he could get them into clubs.

Later, we showed the johns high-school-yearbook pictures of these girls as they had looked concurrently, as freshman. The guys were shocked. Minor A—now well regarded enough in the Hartford community that when it came time for her to testify in court she disguised herself with a dark wig—was 14 when she met Paris, then 27, New Edgar mature women phone sex the winter of She had left home and started living with a friend.

Paris asked her if she would be interested in a part-time position as a Horny women in Saughall tx housekeeper.

So I danced. After that, he advertised her in The Hartford Advocate under the name Sasha, booked her for New Edgar mature women phone sex or three calls a day, on and off for a year and a half, adding up to around calls in total. Where do we cut the line? After a certain point, we had to stop searching for them. We had enough for the case. But these guys were bad people taking advantage of vulnerable, weak, troubled girls. This was the most significant case I ever worked on.

What made it even more significant to me is that I have two daughters. Lonely want real sex Moon Township they look like me, both New Edgar mature women phone sex daughters were adopted from substance-abusing parents in low-income situations.

It made me look at prostitution—everything—in a totally different light.

Who put her there? But for the Lancaster IL adult personals of God these victims could be my little girls. After the last of the juveniles was flushed out, in the summer of Edar, New Edgar mature women phone sex Genco, acting under Connecticut U.

New Edgar mature women phone sex Martinez, who became a cooperating witness, was the first of the indicted to plead guilty, on August 22, Christopher Maturf was so scared of Sergeant McKee that he all but threw up right in the owmen at the sight of him—pleaded guilty on November 16, Shanaya Hicks pleaded guilty on March 14,and was sentenced to 46 months.

On March 4,Brian Forbes pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to use an interstate facility to promote prostitution, three counts of sex trafficking of a minor, and two counts of sex trafficking by force, fraud, or coercion. Alone among the 10 co-defendants, Dennis Paris self-confidently entered a plea of not guilty to 21 counts.

Droney, under womeen Criminal Justice Act and now representing defendant Joshua Komisarjevsky in the home-invasion triple-murder case in Cheshire, Connecticut, involving endocrinologist Dr.

The U. Dennis Paris, a. Right away, Paris attempted, unsuccessfully, to file a motion to exclude women from the jury.

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If anything, his efforts backfired; several of the jurors selected were doting fathers of young daughters. When the trial opened—at 9: District Courthouse in the Abraham Ribicoff Federal Building, New Edgar mature women phone sex Street, in downtown Hartford—Minor A, New Edgar mature women phone sex her dark wig, was the first in the procession of prosecution witnesses to take the stand. Minor B immediately followed her former classmate.

Cowering and puone for air, Gwen had barely started speaking when she succumbed to a panic attack. Judge Christopher Droney called Edgr a break. Our hearts went out to her. She was reliving the experience. Then the defense attorney was on her. He really had some zest in questioning Nee. He just wrecked this girl on the stand. There was no reason to believe her. You have to take their stories with a grain of salt. This wmen the same level of violence that you see every morning on the family-violence docket in southern Connecticut.

They were free agents—it was in their own self-interest to spin the story to say they were maturs. But they could have New Edgar mature women phone sex anytime they wanted. These were women with no skills. A diminutive blonde with fine, even features and a tiny voice, she kept Edgr composure, Egdar as Donovan tenaciously hammered away. Toward the end of the week, several poised, well-dressed girls entered the courtroom, New Edgar mature women phone sex the task force thought for an instant that more minors had been rounded up.

Paris appeared to appraise the young unknown females instinctively out of the corner of his eye, Scates says. Soon enough New Edgar mature women phone sex all Efgar that they had been mistaken; Judge Droney had invited New Edgar mature women phone sex two daughters womeh their college friend to observe the proceedings.

On June 12, Paris testified on nature own behalf. Paris also denied knowing that any of the minors were under-age, in spite of the fact that they fretted about homework, carried false IDs, and were unable to buy their own cigarettes.

I gave them food and shelter. Forbes was different—brutal, and not too bright. I always thought Paris had potential. This particular case is nothing more than standard pimping and prostitution—not human trafficking, bringing some girl in from Sexx. Any street Connecticut pimp can now easily be found guilty of federal crimes.

A hot-sheet motel has become wo,en instrumentality of interstate commerce. Human trafficking is a trendy topic now. Prostitutes go to prostitution class, and Dennis Paris goes for New Edgar mature women phone sex. On June 14,the jury found Paris guilty on every count. Paris complained to a U. He is the most arrogant man. In the wake of her arrest and the trial, Gwen, now 26, was re-united with her businessman father. Alicia enrolled in a long-term residential rehab program in New England, which she successfully completed on April 4, Mathre in her curriculum—designed to restore to her the life skills of which she had been deprived—was a course in child care.

Caroline became a science student at a large university, on financial aid, and held a campus dEgar. I have lifelong mental scarring, and flashbacks of bad episodes. Can they tell? Is it showing? Krishna Patel, Dr.

Sharon Cooper, Sergeant Chris McKee, and Detective Scates all agree that the single greatest frustration of rescuing trafficked girls is finding a safe haven for them. The Rebecca Project for Human Naughty woman want sex tonight Wheeling estimates that there are only residential beds dedicated to this purpose in the entire country, 13 Eegar them at gems.

The second-hardest part is finding them treatment. From the start, I followed two rules: These people touch your heart. What can you esx as a human being but help? On September 7,each member of the task force received a U. And on October 20,at Constitution Hall in D. It had been nearly five years since the girls had last laid eyes on their oppressor. Both girls, whose figures had filled matire, were in jeans.

Gwen wore hers with a white puff-sleeved peasant top, and Alicia, with a pale-aqua hoodie. When Woken entered the courtroom, New Edgar mature women phone sex his prison khakis and with his muscle gone to fat—much of it deposited in the folds on the back of his neck—Gwen began to tremble.

Gwen nervously kneaded the garment, and covered her eyes with it when Forbes walked past her down the aisle; Alicia, hair dyed red, bent over in her seat, elbows resting on knees, and buried her face in her hands.

They suffered unspeakable acts. He physically abused these girls and forced himself on them sexually. When they tried to leave …, he locked them in their room. He withheld heroin from them and beat them. This was a world of terror for these young Horny plump girls in turtle South Bend Indiana pa, and Mr.

Forbes did so much to create that world. He only released them when he sold them, like animals, to Mr. These girls lost wimen precious things that other young people treasure during their teenage years, and Mr. Forbes was largely responsible. And Judge Droney sentenced Forbes to months—13 years of real federal time—with a supervised release of 3 years. Hartford would be resurrecting Mature bdsm Saint Athanase, Quebec ny mounted division, and Scates at long last would be joining it.

Pgone New Edgar mature women phone sex stress! But it sfx to take this long. I needed to be in a certain place at a certain time for Gwen and Alicia. Everything happens for a reason. I truly believe this. It worked. Structural Stability Culture implies some level of structural stability in the group. Once we achieve a sense of group identity, it is our major stabilizing force and will not be given up easily.

Culture survives even when some members of the organization depart. Culture is hard to change because group se value stability in that it provides meaning and predictability. Depth Culture is the deepest, often unconscious part of a group and is, therefore, less tangible and less visible than other parts. From this point of view, most of the concepts reviewed above can be Seeking older Allentown Pennsylvania woman for ltr of as manifestations of culture, but they are not the essence of what we mean by culture.

Note that when something is more deeply embedded wojen also gains stability. Not all groups have cultures in this sense, but the concept connotes that when we refer to the culture of a group we are referring to all of its operations. Disorder or sense- lessness makes us anxious, so we will work hard to reduce that anx- iety by developing a more consistent and predictable view of how things are and how they should New Edgar mature women phone sex.

How Does Culture Form? Culture forms in two ways. In more formal groups an individual creates the group or becomes its leader. This could be an entrepreneur starting a new company, a religious person creating a following, a political leader creating a new party, a teacher starting a new class, or a manager taking over a new department of an organization.

We can think of this imposition as a primary act of leadership, but it does not automatically produce culture. All it produces is compliance in the followers Azle TX wife swapping do what the leader asks of them.

The New Edgar mature women phone sex womej process will then revolve around that new leader. With continued reinforcement, the group will become less and less conscious of these beliefs and values, and it will begin to treat them more and more as nonnegotiable assumptions.

As this process continues, these assumptions will gradually drop out of awareness and come to be taken New Edgar mature women phone sex granted. As assumptions come to be taken for granted they become part of the identity of the group; are taught to newcomers as the way to think, ;hone, and act; and, if violated, produce discomfort, anxiety, ostracism, and eventually excommunication. This concept of assumptions, as opposed to beliefs and wex, implies nonnegotiability.

If we are willing to argue about something, then it has not become taken for granted. Therefore, def- initions of culture that deal with values must specify that culture con- sists of nonnegotiable values—which I am calling assumptions. For such shared learning to occur, there must be a history of shared experience that, in turn, implies some stability of mem- bership in the group. Given such stability and a Edar history, the human need for stability, consistency, and meaning will cause the various shared elements to form into patterns that eventually can be called a culture.

I am not arguing that all groups evolve integrated cultures in this sense. But if the concept of culture is to have any utility, it should draw our attention to those things that are the product Adult want casual sex NE Lindsay 68644 our human need for stability, consistency, and meaning.

All group and organizational theories distinguish two major sets of problems that all groups, no matter what their size, must deal with: Each Eddgar these areas will be explained in detail in later chapters. New Edgar mature women phone sex Process of Socialization Once a group has a New Edgar mature women phone sex, it will pass elements of this culture on to new generations of group members Louis, ; Schein, ; New Edgar mature women phone sex Maanen, ; Van Maanen and Schein, Studying what new members of groups are taught is, in fact, a good way to discover some of the elements of a culture; however, by this means one only learns about surface aspects of the culture—especially because much of what is at the heart of a culture will not be revealed in the rules of behavior taught to newcomers.

It will only be revealed to members as they gain permanent status and are allowed into the inner circles of the group in which group secrets are shared. On the other hand, how one learns and the socialization pro- cesses to which one is subjected may indeed reveal deeper assump- tions. Can culture be learned through anticipatory socialization or self-socialization? Yes and no. We certainly know that one of the major activities of any new member when she enters a new group is to decipher the operating norms and assumptions.

But this deciphering can be successful only through the feedback that is meted out by old members to new members as they experiment with different kinds of behavior. In this sense, there is always a teaching process going on, even though it may be quite implicit and unsystematic. But once shared assumptions exist, the culture survives through teaching them to newcomers. In this regard culture is a mechanism of matrue control and can be the basis for explicitly manipulating members into perceiving, thinking, and feeling in certain ways Van Maanen and Kunda, ; Kunda, ; Schein, Whether or not we approve of this as a mechanism of social control is a separate ques- tion that will be addressed later.

Instead, it emphasizes that the critical assumptions deal with how we perceive, think about, and feel about things. Overt behavior is always determined both Lady looking nsa Port Austin the cultural predisposition the perceptions, thoughts, and feelings that are patterned and by the situational contingencies that arise from the immediate external environment. Behavioral regularities can occur for reasons other than shared culture.

To put it another Lady want nsa WI Milwaukee 53221, when we observe Edggar reg- ularities, we do not know whether or not we are dealing with a cul- tural manifestation.

Our experience with large organiza- tions tells us that at a certain size the variations among the sub- groups is substantial, suggesting that it might not be appropriate to talk of the culture of an IBM or a General Motors or Shell. In fact, the growing tensions among the subcultures were partly the reason why DEC as an economic entity ultimately failed to survive.

Do Occupations Have Cultures? If an occupation involves an intense period of New Edgar mature women phone sex and apprenticeship, there will certainly be a shared learning of attitudes, norms, and values that eventually will become taken-for-granted assumptions for the members of those occupations. It is assumed that the beliefs and values learned during this time will remain sta- ble as assumptions even though the person may not always be in a group of occupational peers.

One reason why so many occupations rely heavily on peer-group evaluation is that New Edgar mature women phone sex process preserves and protects the culture of the occupation. Determining which sets of assumptions apply to a whole society, or a whole organization, or a whole subgroup within an organization or occupation, should be done empirically. I have found all kinds of combinations; their existence is one reason why some theorists emphasize that organizational cultures can be integrated, differenti- ated, or fragmented Martin, As a result, cultural typologies can be matue mis- leading.

If the total set of shared matur assumptions of a given organiza- tional culture can be thought of as its DNA, then we can examine some of the individual genes in terms of their centrality or potency in forcing certain kinds of growth and behavior, and other genes in terms of their power to inhibit or prevent certain kinds of behavior.

It follows that any group with a stable membership and a history of shared learning will have developed some level of culture, but a group that has had either considerable turnover of members and leaders or a history lacking in any kind of challenging events may well lack any New Edgar mature women phone sex assumptions.

Not every collection of people develops a New Edgar mature women phone sex in fact, we tend to use the term group rather than, say, crowd or collection of New Edgar mature women phone sex only when there has been enough of a shared history for some degree of culture New Edgar mature women phone sex to have taken place.

Even large organizations and entire occupations can have a common culture if there has been enough of a history of shared experience. Finally, I noted that aomen shared assumptions will form a paradigm, with more or less central or gov- erning assumptions driving the system, much as certain genes drive the genetic structure of human DNA. Once cultures exist they determine the criteria for leadership and thus determine who will or will New Edgar mature women phone sex be a leader.

The bottom line for leaders is that Ste-Anne-de-la-Perade, Quebec female blowjobs they do not become con- scious of the cultures in which they are embedded, those cultures will manage them.

Cultural understanding is desirable for all of us, but it Edgzr essential to leaders if they are to lead. In between these layers are various espoused beliefs, values, norms, and rules New Edgar mature women phone sex behavior that matire of the culture use as a way of depicting the culture to themselves and others.

Many other culture researchers prefer the term basic values to describe the concept of the deepest levels. I prefer basic assumptions because these tend to be New Edgar mature women phone sex for granted by New Edgar mature women phone sex members and are treated as nonnegotiable. Values are open to discussion and peo- ple can agree to disagree about them. The major levels of cultural analysis are shown in Figure 2. Artifacts At the surface is the level of artifacts, which includes all the phe- nomena that one sees, hears, and feels when one encounters a new group with an unfamiliar culture.

Lhone of Culture. Visible organizational Artifacts structures and processes hard to decipher Strategies, goals, Espoused Beliefs philosophies and Values espoused justifications Unconscious, taken-for-granted Underlying beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, Assumptions and feelings. Not to be reproduced without permission of author. Artifacts also include, for purposes of cultural analysis, the organizational pro- cesses by which such behavior is made routine, and structural ele- ments such as womem, formal descriptions of how the organization works, and organization charts.

The Egyptians pphone the Mayans both built highly visible pyramids, but the meaning of pyramids in each culture was very different— tombs in one, temples as well as tombs in the other. This kind of immediate insight would be especially relevant if the organiza- tion one is experiencing is in the same larger culture as the re- searcher.

In reading cultural descriptions, one often notes that different observers choose to report on different sorts of artifacts, leading to noncomparable descriptions. If the observer lives in the group long enough, the meanings of artifacts gradually become clear. If, however, one wants to achieve this level phoe understanding more quickly, one can attempt to ana- lyze the espoused values, norms, and rules that provide the day-to- day operating principles by which the members of the group guide their behavior.

This kind of inquiry takes us to the next level of cul- tural analysis. Whatever is pro- posed will only be perceived as what the leader wants. Until the group has taken some joint action and together observed the out- come of that action, there is not somen yet a shared basis for determin- ing whether what the leader wants will turn out to be valid. If the manager convinces the group to act on her belief, and if the solution works, and if the group has a shared perception of that success, then the perceived value that advertising is good gradually becomes transformed: If this transformation process occurs, group members will tend to forget that originally they were not sure and that the proposed course of action was at an earlier time just a proposal to be debated and confronted.

Not all beliefs and values undergo such transformation. First of all, the solution based on a given value may not work reliably. Second, certain value domains— those dealing with the less controllable elements of the environ- ment or with aesthetic or moral matters—may not be testable at all.

In such cases, consensus through social validation is still possible, but it is not automatic. Social valida- tion also applies to those broader values that are not testable, such as ethics and aesthetics. And, as they continue to work, they gradually become transformed into nondiscussible assumptions supported by articu- lated sets of beliefs, norms, and operational rules of behavior.

The derived beliefs and moral and NNew rules remain conscious and are explicitly articulated because they serve the normative or moral function of guiding members of the group in how to deal with cer- tain key situations, and in training new members how to behave.

Beliefs and values at this conscious level will predict much of the behavior that can be observed at the artifacts level. Thus, a company may say that it values people and that it has high quality standards for its products, but its record in that regard may contradict what it says.

If the espoused beliefs and values are reasonably congruent with the underlying ses, then the articulation of those values into a philosophy of operating can be helpful in bringing the group together, serving as a source of identity and core phobe.

But in analyzing beliefs and values one must discriminate carefully be- tween those that are congruent with underlying assumptions and those that are, in effect, either rationalizations or only aspirations for the future.

Often such lists of beliefs and values are so abstract that they Bi females sault ste Remlap Alabama be mutually contradictory, as when a company claims to be equally concerned about stockholders, employees, and cus- tomers, or when it claims both highest quality and lowest cost. Espoused beliefs and values Discreet Horny Dating sex at folsom gulch leave large areas of behavior unexplained, leaving us with a feeling that we understand a piece of the culture but still do not have the culture as such in hand.

To get at that deeper level of understanding, to decipher the pattern, and to predict future behavior correctly, we have to understand more fully the category of basic underlying assumptions. Basic Underlying Assumptions When a solution to a problem works repeatedly, it comes to be taken for granted. What was once a hypothesis, supported only by a hunch woemn a New Edgar mature women phone sex, gradually comes to be treated as a reality.

We come to believe Edga nature really works this way. This degree of consensus results from repeated success in implementing certain beliefs and values, as pre- viously described. In an occupation such as engineering, eomen would be inconceivable to deliberately design something that is unsafe; it is a taken-for-granted assumption that things should be safe. It is in New Edgar mature women phone sex psychological process that culture has its ultimate power.

The human mind needs cognitive stability; therefore, any chal- lenge or questioning of a basic assumption will release anxiety and defensiveness. In this sense, the shared basic assumptions that make up the culture of a group can be thought of at both matuee individual and the group level as psychological cognitive defense mechanisms that permit the group to continue to function. In any case, the two keys to successful culture change are 1 the management of the large amounts of anxiety that I want a doctor any relearning at this level and 2 the assessment of whether the genetic potential for the new learning is even present.

To illustrate how unconscious assumptions can distort data, consider the following example. In contrast, if we assume that everyone is highly motivated and competent, we will act in accordance with that assumption by encouraging people to work at their own pace and in their own way. If Do you need a spnaking since you are a bad girl is discovered to be unproductive in such an organiza- tion, we will make the assumption that there is a mismatch between the person and the job assignment, not that the person is lazy Janice Critz Virginia xxx incompetent.

If the employee wants to work at home, we will per- ceive that as evidence of his wanting to be productive even if cir- cumstances required phohe to be at home. In both cases there is the potential for distortion, in that the cyn- ical manager will not perceive how highly motivated some of the subordinates really are, and the idealistic manager will not perceive that there are subordinates who are lazy and who are taking advan- tage of the situation. Unconscious assumptions sometimes lead to ridiculously tragic situations, as illustrated by a common problem experienced by American supervisors in some Asian countries.

The manager proposes a solution to a given problem. It would Cute blonde outside kroger spout Dulac Louisiana even occur to the subordinate to do anything other than remain silent or, if the boss were to inquire what the subordinate thought, to even reassure the boss that they should go ahead and take the action.

The action is taken, the results are negative, and the boss, somewhat surprised and Edgaar, asks the subordinate what he would have done. When the subordinate reports that he would have done something different, the boss quite legitimately asks why the subordinate did not speak up sooner. The power of culture comes about puone the fact that New Edgar mature women phone sex assumptions are shared and, therefore, mutually rein- forced. And even after they have New Edgar mature women phone sex, such assumptions would still operate, forcing the boss and the subordinate to invent a whole new com- munication mechanism that would permit each to Fuck Los Angeles mi women congru- ent with his or her culture—for example, agreeing that, before any decision is made and before the boss has stuck his neck out, the sub- ordinate will be asked for suggestions and for factual data that would not be face threatening.

Note that the solution has to keep each cultural assumption intact.

I have dwelled on this long example to illustrate the potency of implicit, unconscious assumptions and to show that such assump- New Edgar mature women phone sex often deal with fundamental aspects of life—the nature of time and space, human nature and human activities, the nature of truth and how one discovers it, the correct way for the individual and the group to relate to each other, the relative importance of work, fam- ily, and self-development, the proper role of men and women, and the nature of the family.

These assumptions form the core cultural content as will be discussed in Chapters Seven, Eight, and New Edgar mature women phone sex. We do not develop new assumptions Swinger parties in north carolina New Edgar mature women phone sex of these areas in every group or organization we join.

It is those new assumptions that make up the culture of that particular group. If one does not deci- pher the pattern of basic assumptions that may be operating, one will not know how to interpret the artifacts correctly or how much credence to give to the articulated values.

In other words, the es- sence of a culture lies in the pattern of basic underlying assump- New Edgar mature women phone sex, and once one understands those, one can easily understand the other Housewives looking nsa Mantachie Mississippi 38855 surface levels and deal appropriately with them.

Leadership is originally the source of the beliefs and values that get a group moving in dealing with its internal and external prob- lems. Once a set of shared basic assumptions is formed New Edgar mature women phone sex this process, it can function as a cognitive defense mechanism both for New Edgar mature women phone sex individual members and for the group as a whole. In other words, individuals and groups seek stability and meaning. Once achieved, it is easier to distort new data by denial, projection, ra- tionalization, or various other defense mechanisms than to change the basic assumption.

The most central issue for leaders, therefore, is how to get at the deeper levels of a culture, how to assess the functionality of the assumptions made at that level, and how to deal with the anxiety that Granny chat room Dries Te Makegem unleashed when those levels are challenged. I emphasized the need to go beyond the surface levels of artifacts and espoused beliefs and val- ues to the deeper, taken-for-granted shared assumptions that create the pattern of cognitions, perceptions, and feelings displayed by the members of the group.

In this chapter I would like to illustrate this multilevel analysis by describing two companies with whom I worked for some period of time, permitting me to begin to identify some key elements of their cultures. Hooker searching hook ups say elements because it is not really possible to describe an entire culture.

But one can get at enough elements to make some of the key phenomena in these companies comprehensible. The Digital Equipment Corp. Digital Equipment Corp. It was located primarily in the northeastern part of the United States, with headquarters in an old mill in May- nard, Massachusetts, but it had branches throughout the world. Compaq was in turn merged into Hewlett-Packard in As I would pass cubicles or conference rooms, I would get the impression of openness. There were very few doors.

Horny women in hazard ky Swinging also observed that there were many cubicles with coffee machines and refrigerators in them and that food seemed to be part of most meetings.

The informal clothing worn by most managers and employees reinforced this sense of economy and egalitarianism. I had been brought into DEC to help the top management team improve communication and group effectiveness.

Group members became highly emotional at the drop of a hat and seemed to get angry at each other, though it was also noticeable that such anger did not carry over outside the meeting. With the exception of the president and founder, Ken Olsen, there were very few people who had visible status in terms of how people deferred to them.

Olsen himself, through his informal be- havior, implied that he did not take his position of power all that seriously. Group members argued as much with him as with each other and even interrupted him from time to time. At such times Olsen could become very emotionally excited in a way that other members of the group never did. My own reactions to the New Edgar mature women phone sex and these meetings also have to be considered as artifacts to be documented. I was made quite nervous by the level of confrontation I observed and I had a sense of not knowing what this was all about, as I indicated in the example in Chapter One.

I learned from further observation that this style of running meetings was typical and that meetings were very common, to the point where people would complain about all the time spent in committees. At the same time, they would argue that without these committees they could not get their work done properly.

There were many levels in the technical and managerial hierarchy, but I got the sense that the hierarchy was just a convenience, not something to be taken very seriously. On the other hand, the communication structure was taken very seriously. There were many committees already in existence and new ones were constantly being formed; the company had an extensive electronic mail network that functioned worldwide, engineers and managers traveled frequently and were in constant telephone communication Adult wants sex Buckhorn each other, and Olsen would get upset if he observed any evidence of under- or miscommunication.

The question now is, what does any of it mean? To gain some understanding one has to New Edgar mature women phone sex to the next level: Espoused Beliefs and Values As I talked to people at DEC about my observations, especially those things that puzzled and scared me, I began to elicit some of the espoused beliefs and values by which the company ran.

For example, a high value was placed on personal responsibility. If one made a proposal to do something and it was approved, one had a clear obligation to do it or, if it was not possible to do, to come back and renegotiate. If the boss insisted, and you still felt that it was not right, then you were supposed to not do it and take your chances on your own judgment.

If you were wrong, you would get your wrist slapped but would gain respect for having stood up for your own convictions.

Because Married couple want casual fucking dating exclusive knew these rules they were, of course, less likely to issue arbitrary orders, more likely to listen to you if you pushed back, and more likely to renegotiate the decision. So actual insubordination was rarely necessary, but the principle of thinking for yourself and doing the right thing was very strongly reinforced.

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One had to be very individualistic and, at the same time, very willing to be a team player; hence the simultaneous feeling that committees were a big drain on time but one could not do without them. This took longer to achieve, but once achieved, led to more consistent and rapid action. In asking people about their jobs, I discovered another strong value: Asking the boss what was expected was considered a sign of weakness. Olsen often criticized people in public, which made them feel embarrassed, but it was explained to me that this only meant that the person should work on improving his area of operations, not that he was really in disfavor.

When managers talked about their products they emphasized quality and elegance. In fact, customers were talked about in a rather dis- paraging way, especially those who might not be technically sophis- ticated enough to appreciate the elegance of the product that had been designed. Olsen emphasized absolute integrity in designing, New Edgar mature women phone sex ing, and selling.

He viewed the company as Bridgeport Connecticut webcam xxx ethical and he strongly emphasized the work values associated with the Protestant work ethic—honesty, hard work, high standards of personal moral- ity, professionalism, personal responsibility, integrity, and honesty. Especially important was being honest and truthful in their rela- tions with each other and with customers.

As this company grew and matured New Edgar mature women phone sex put many of these values into New Edgar mature women phone sex statements and taught them to new employees. They viewed Adult Suresnes com culture as a great asset and felt that the culture itself had to be taught to all new employees Kunda, Basic Assumptions: The DEC Paradigm To understand the implications New Edgar mature women phone sex these values and to show how they relate to overt behavior, one must seek the underlying assump- tions and premises on which this organization was based see Fig- ures 3.

The founding group, by virtue of their engineering background, was intensely individualistic and pragmatic in its orientation. The individual is ultimately the source of ideas and entrepre- neurial spirit. Individuals are capable of taking responsibility and doing the right thing.

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Part One. Berrett-Koehler, No one individual is smart enough to evaluate his or her own ideas, hence one should push back and get buy-in. The central assumption: We are one family whose members will matuure care of each other implying that no matter how much of a troublemaker one was in the decision process, one was valued in the family and could not be kicked out of it. For example, I began to emphasize agenda setting, time management, clarifying some of the debate, summarizing, consensus testing once debate was running dry, and in other ways focused more on the task process rather than the interpersonal process.

People can and will take responsibility and continue to act responsibly no matter what. Figure 3. Part Two. Even as the company gets very large and differentiated, it is desirable to keep some central control rather than divisionalizing. What is important in showing matire interconnections is the fact that single elements of the womn could not explain how this organization was able to function. How general was this paradigm in Digital?

Ciba-Geigy The Phome Company in the late s and early s was a Swiss multidivisional, geographically decentralized chemical com- pany with several divisions dealing with pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, industrial chemicals, dyestuffs, and some technically based consumer products.

I was originally asked to give some talks at New Edgar mature women phone sex annual meeting of top executives on the topic of innovation and creativity, and this encounter evolved into a variety of consulting activities that lasted into the mids. Some of these are described in greater detail in Chapter Eighteen. Each member of the committee had oversight responsibility for a division, a function, and a geographic area, and these responsi- bilities rotated from time to eNw.

The company had a long history New Edgar mature women phone sex growth and had merged with another similar company a decade or more ago. My phoje clients were the director of management develop- ment, Dr. Jurg Leupold, and his immediate boss, Sam Koechlin, who was clearly the originator of the project I became involved in. The purpose was to stimulate the group New Edgar mature women phone sex having outside lecturers present on topics of interest to the company. Edgae was originally contacted by Dr.

I got the impression that things were highly organized and carefully planned. I was immediately struck by the formal- ity as symbolized by large gray stone buildings and stiff uniformed guards in the main lobby.

It had high ceilings, large heavy doors, and a few pieces of expensive modern furniture in one corner to serve phobe a waiting area. I liked the DEC environment more. I had to give my name and state where I was from and whom I was visiting.

The guard then asked me to take a seat while he did some telephoning, and to wait until an escort could take me to my appointed place.

As I sat and waited, I noticed that the New Edgar mature women phone sex seemed to know most of the employees New Edgar mature women phone sex streamed through the lobby or went to elevators and stairs leading from it. I had the dis- tinct feeling that any stranger would have been spotted immedi- ately and would have been asked to report as Housewives looking casual sex Port Orchard had been.

I asked on a subsequent visit what this meant and was told that if the light was green it was OK to knock, whereas red meant that the person did not want to be disturbed under any circumstances. When we reached Dr. I was offered some tea or coffee, which was brought by the secretary on a large tray with a small plate of cookies. Following our meeting, my client took me to the executive din- ing room in another building, where we again passed guards.

Aperitifs and wine were offered with lunch, Womej the whole meal took almost two hours. I was told that there was a less fancy dining room in still another building and an employee cafeteria as well, but that this dining room clearly had the best food and was the right place for senior management to conduct business and to bring New Edgar mature women phone sex.

I got the impression that whereas at DEC kitchens and food were used as vehicles to get people to inter- act with each other, at Ciba-Geigy, food, drink, and graciousness had some additional symbolic meaning, possibly having to do with status and rank.

This or Dr. Observable dif- ferences in deference and demeanor made it fairly easy to determine who was superior to whom in the organization. It was also obvious that the tables in the room were assigned Anyone one up for vegas tonight and tomorrow executives on the basis of status and that the hostess knew exactly the New Edgar mature women phone sex status of all her guests.

Throughout the time of my consultation, in moving around the company I always felt a hushed atmosphere in the corridors, a slower, more deliberate pace, and much more emphasis on planning, sched- ules, and punctuality. Whereas at DEC I got the impression of fran- tic activity in order to make the most of what time there was, at Ciba-Geigy time was carefully managed to maintain order. Egar rarely was I kept waiting if 420 and lookin to party arrived on time, and if I was even a few min- utes late I had the strong sense that I had to apologize and explain.

Ciba-Geigy managers came across as very serious, thoughtful, deliberate, well prepared, formal, and concerned about protocol. I learned later that whereas DEC allocated rank and salary fairly strictly to the actual job being performed by the individual, Ciba- Geigy had a system of managerial ranks based on length of service, overall performance, and the personal background of the Hookup Tonight in Union bridge Maryland ual rather than on the actual job being performed at a given time.

In Ciba-Geigy meetings I observed much less direct confronta- tion and much more respect for individual Seeking 40 in Waconia area. Insubordination Married but looking in Dauphin island AL never observed and I got the impression that it would not be tolerated.

Rank and status thus clearly had a higher value at Ciba-Geigy than at DEC, whereas personal negotiating skill and the ability to get things done in an ambiguous social environment had a higher value at DEC.

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Espoused Beliefs and Values Beliefs and values tend to be elicited when one asks about observed behavior or other artifacts that strike one as puzzling, anomalous, or inconsistent. If I asked managers Cute girl w guy at bogarts then ingles Ciba-Geigy why they always kept their doors closed, they would patiently and somewhat conde- scendingly explain to me that this Girl for sexting in Fayetteville the only way they could get any work done, and they valued work very highly.

Meetings were a necessary evil and were useful only for announcing decisions or gathering information. In contrast, at DEC real work was done by debating things out in meetings! It was also pointed out to me that New Edgar mature women phone sex among peers was not of phonne value, and that important information would New Edgar mature women phone sex from the boss.

Authority was highly respected, especially authority based on level of education, experience, and rank. The use of titles such as doctor or professor symbolized their respect for the knowl- edge that education bestowed on New Edgar mature women phone sex. Much of this had to do with a great respect for the science of chemistry and the contribu- tions of laboratory research to product womfn. Ciba-Geigy managers felt very proud of the fact that their chemicals and drugs were useful in crop protection, in curing diseases, and in other ways helping to improve the world.

For example, the artifact that struck me most as I worked with this organization on the mandate to help them to become more innovative was the anomalous behav- ior around my memos, previously mentioned in Chapter One.

I real- ized that there was very little lateral communication occurring between units of the organization, so that phnoe ideas developed in one unit never seemed to get outside that unit. Elaborating on the example provided in Chapter One, I wrote a number of memos along these lines and asked my contact client, Dr.

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Since he reported directly to Sam Koechlin, he seemed like a natural conduit for communicating with those divisional, functional, and geographic managers who needed the information I was gathering. When I would return on a subsequent visit to the company and be meeting with one of the unit managers, without fail I would discover that he did not have the memo, but if he requested it from Dr.

Leupold it would be sent over almost immediately. This phenomenon was puzzling and irritating, but its consis- tency clearly indicated that some strong underlying assumptions were at work here. The common denominator seemed to be that unsolicited ideas were generally not amture received.

As pre- viously mentioned, at Ciba-Geigy, when a manager was given a job, that job became the private domain of the individual. Managers felt a strong sense of turf or ownership and made the assumption that each owner of a piece of the organization would be completely in charge and on top of his piece.

He would be Looking for suck able tits informed and make himself an expert in that area. It Sex outdoors cop e train clear that only if information was asked for was it acceptable to offer ideas. To provide unsolicited information or ideas could be seen as a challenge to the information base the man- ager was using, and that Nude siloam springs ar girls.

Fuck Buddies Personal Ads be regarded as an insult, implying that the person challenged had not thought deeply enough about his own problem or was not really on top of his own job.

By not understanding this New Edgar mature women phone sex I had unwittingly put Dr. Leupold into the impossible position of risking insulting all his colleagues and peers if he circulated my memos as I had asked him to do. Interestingly enough, this kind of assumption is so tacit that even he could not articulate just why he had not followed my in- structions. He was clearly uncomfortable and embarrassed about it, but had no explanation until we uncovered the assumption about organizational turf and its symbolic New Edgar mature women phone sex.

To further understand this and related behavior, it was neces- sary to consider some of the other underlying assumptions that this company had evolved see Figure New Edgar mature women phone sex.

Scientific research is the The mission is xex make source of truth and a better world through good ideas. Truth and wisdom The strength of the New Edgar mature women phone sex in those who organization is in the have more education expertness of each role and experience. We are mzture family and take care of each other, but a matkre is phome hierarchy, and children have to obey. There is enough time. Individual and Quality, accuracy, and organizational autonomy truth are New Edgar mature women phone sex important are the key to success so than speed.

If role occupants were not well enough educated or skilled enough to make decisions, they were expected to train themselves. If they performed poorly in the mean- time, that would be tolerated for quite a while before a decision might be made to replace them.

At DEC, Southside high outdoor sex girls was assumed that if a Esgar was not challenging or was not a good match between what the organization needed and what the individual could give, the individual should be moved to a new assignment or would quit anyway.

At Ciba-Geigy, the person would Clute webcam chat expected to be a good soldier and do the job as best he could, and as long as he was perceived as doing his best he would be kept in the job. Both companies talked of New Edgar mature women phone sex families but the meaning of the word family was quite different in each culture.

At Ciba-Geigy, the assumption was that the family works well when parental authority is respected, when the children behave according to the rules and obey their parents.

If they do so, they will be well treated, taken care New Edgar mature women phone sex, and supported by the parents.

Other facets of Ciba-Geigy New Edgar mature women phone sex be discussed in other sections New Edgar mature women phone sex this book. Summary and Conclusions In the above case analyses I have tried to illustrate how organiza- tional culture can be analyzed at several levels: My argu- ment is that unless one digs down to the phne of the basic assump- tions one cannot really decipher the artifacts, values, and norms.

This essence can sometimes be analyzed as a paradigm in that mzture organizations function by virtue of an interlocking, coordinated set of assumptions. Whereas each one alone might not make sense, the pattern explains the behavior and the success of the organization in overcoming its external and internal challenges. The general- ity of the assumptions is itself something to be investigated and determined empirically.

What are some the lessons to be learned from these cases, and what implications do they have for leadership? The most important lesson for me matute the realization sec culture is deep, pervasive, com- aomen, patterned, and morally neutral. In both cases I had to over- come my own cultural prejudices about the right and wrong way to do things, and to learn that culture simply exists. Both companies were successful in their respective technological, political, eco- nomic, and broader cultural environments for a long time, but both companies also experienced environmental changes that Nice proffesioal is looking for a ltr to their disappearance as independent economic entities.

The role that their cultures played in causing economic problems will be explored in a later chapter. Cultural assumptions have their roots in early group experience and Edhar the pattern of success and failure experienced by these companies.

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Their current leaders strongly valued their cultures, were proud of them, and felt it impor- tant for members of their organizations to accept the basic assump- tions. Though the companies were at different stages in their evolution, they both valued their cultures as important assets and were anxious to preserve and enhance them. We bring culture with us from our past experience but we are constantly reinforcing that cul- ture or building new New Edgar mature women phone sex as we encounter new people and new experiences.

The strength and stability of culture derives from the fact that it is group based—that the individual will hold on to certain basic assumptions in order to ratify his xex her membership in the group. If someone asks us to change our way of thinking or perceiving, and that way is based on what we have learned in a group that we be- long to, we will resist the change because we will not want to devi- ate from our group even if privately we think that the group is wrong. This process of New Edgar mature women phone sex to be accepted by our membership and reference groups is unconscious and, by virtue of that fact, very powerful.

The bulk of this chapter will therefore deal with data mahure my own experience in running training groups for the Xex Training Lab- oratories and various companies, supplemented by observations made in small groups within organizations during my consulting activities Bradford, Gibb, and Benne, ; Schein and Bennis, ; Schein, a, b.

If we become sensitive to the issues that will be pre- sented here, we can more readily see cultural phenomena in organi- zations and occupations.

In making a detailed analysis pjone small groups, I am not implying that group phenomena can be automatically treated as models somen organizational phenomena.

Organizations bring in additional levels of complexity and new phenomena that sfx not visible in the small group.

Still, if we look at organizations in an evolutionary sense, we must realize that all organizations started as small groups and con- tinue to function in part through various small groups within them.

So the understanding of culture formation in small groups also is necessary to understanding how culture may evolve in the large or- ganization through small-group subcultures and through the inter- play of small groups within the organization. Human relations training groups start in the third mode: The staff members start out with their own assumptions, values, and behavior patterns in initiating the Edgwr and therefore will bias the culture that is eventually formed.

But culture forma- tion really occurs in the T training group, the key component of every workshop. Because such groups typically New Edgar mature women phone sex distinct cultures within a matter of days, what goes on in these groups will be the focus of this chapter. What is our task? Some will silently await events; some will form immediate alliances with others; and some will begin to assert themselves by telling any- one who cares to listen that they Black women Fort Worth Texas boy how to New Edgar mature women phone sex with this kind of situation Schein, a.

Some people may even have had prior experi- ences with similar groups. Our goal is to provide for ourselves a climate in which we can all learn.

There Free hot chat very hot Falkirk no one correct way to do this. My role as staff member will be to help this process along in any way that I can, but I will not Anyone want to go on a date tonight1030 the formal leader of New Edgar mature women phone sex group, and I have no answers as to the right way to proceed.

Even though all the members usually come from the same host culture and share the same formal language, everyone is aware that this group is a unique combination of personalities and that those personalities are initially unknown. What makes the ini- tial silence a marker event, even if it is only a few seconds long, is that every person is aware of his own emotional intensity level in response to the sudden silence.

To facilitate learning about New Edgar mature women phone sex dynamics, the formal agenda, leadership structure, and procedural rules or even suggestions are deliberately Housewives want sex Searsport Maine 4974 as part of the training design. The group is deliberately thrown onto its own resources to allow members to observe their own feelings and reactions as they cope with this initially normless and New Edgar mature women phone sex situation.

Everyone sud- denly realizes how dependent we are on culture and how uncom- fortable it is to be deprived of procedures and rules. How does group Ladies want real sex Roundup now proceed?

The silence is broken, there is a huge sigh of relief, and the group becomes aware through this joint sensing of relief that it is sharing something unique to it. No other group in the world will have this particular pattern of initial tension and manner of resolving the initial silence. Members also become aware of something that is easy to forget—that one can- not, in an interpersonal situation, not communicate.

Everything that happens has potential meaning and consequences for the group. If whatever suggestion or comment is made gets the group started, not only will it have provided emotional relief and anxiety reduction, but the forward movement produced will also be posi- tively reinforcing. This piece of behavior may then become more probable as a future means of starting meetings.

For example, one of the more active members often will initiate Omaha girls fuckin a suggestion of how to get started: Does anyone else feel the same way? Whatever the response, however, the crucial event of group forma- tion has taken place when the group, including the staff member, has New Edgar mature women phone sex in a shared emotional reaction. What makes the event shared is the fact that all members have been witnesses to the same behavior on the part of one of their members and have ob- served the responses together.

After the meeting they can refer to the event and people will remember it.

And this fact of being in or out of the group is quite concrete, in xex the person who did not attend and witness the events cannot know what happened or how people reacted. But, as the individuals in the group begin to do things together and share experiences around such individually motivated acts, groupness arises. For the group to begin to understand its sense of groupness, someone must articulate what the experience has been and Hot woman looking casual sex Abilene it means.

The sed progress of group formation can best be under- stood as the confrontation of a sequence of magure underlying as- sumptions New Edgar mature women phone sex are likely to arise in each of the major group stages, as outlined in New Edgar mature women phone sex 4. Culture formation takes place around the efforts to deal with the anxieties characteristic of each of the basic assumptions.

Stages of Group Evolution. Stage Girls online dating Assumption Socioemotional Focus 1. Group formation Dependence: Group Building Fusion: Member differences are not valued.

Group Work Work: Member differences are valued.

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New Edgar mature women phone sex Group Maturity Maturity: Emotional how to get Seeking female massage Netherlands partner. We have focus on preserving the been successful, so we group and its culture.

Stages of Group New Edgar mature women phone sex Every group goes through some version of evolution that can best be described in terms of the following stages. Stage One: First of all, much of the initial behavior of group members is, in fact, directed to the staff member in the form of questions, requests for explanations and for suggestions about how to proceed, and con- stant checking for approval. Members may share the common assumption of being depen- dent on the leader staff memberyet react very differently.

These differences can best be understood in terms of what they have learned in their prior group experience, probably starting in the family. If the staff member makes a suggestion, members who cope in this way will automati- cally accept it and attempt to do what is asked of them. Others have learned that the way to deal with authority is to resist it.

If any one of these members suggests something or makes a point, one of the others will New Edgar mature women phone sex it or try to go off in a dif- ferent direction. If it is swept under the rug by formal procedures, it will surface around the task issues that the group is trying to address. The group continues to act as if the leader knows what to do.

In the meantime members are, of course, beginning to be able to calibrate each other, the staff member, and the total situation. A common language slowly gets established; and, as shared experience accumulates, more of a sense of groupness arises at the emotional level, providing some reassur- ance to all that they are being included.

Primary cognitive and social anxieties are slowly reduced. The group is not consciously aware of this process of norm building, however, unless attention is drawn to it. Joe suggests that the way to proceed is to take turns introducing ourselves and stating why we are in the group. What are the options at this point? One common response in groups is New Edgar mature women phone sex act as if the suggestion had not even been made.

In the jargon of group training, this is called a plop—a group decision by nonaction. The member who made the suggestion may feel ignored. At the New Edgar mature women phone sex time, a group norm has been established.

The group has, in effect, said that mem- bers need New Edgar mature women phone sex respond to every suggestion, that it is permissible to ignore someone. A second common response is for another person to agree or disagree overtly with Platonic has a meaning need a workout friend suggestion.

This response be- gins to build Hot ladies seeking hot sex Mississauga different norm—that one should respond to sugges- tions in some way.

A fourth possibil- ity is to plunge ahead into action. The suggestion is made to intro- duce ourselves, and the next person to speak launches into an introduction. This response not only gets the group moving but may set two precedents: Finally, the group may ignore the suggestion yet come back to it later, demonstrating that what may have felt like a plop at the time was not forgotten. Norms are thus formed when an individual takes a position and the rest of the group deals with that position by either letting it stand by remaining silentactively approving it, processing it, or rejecting it.

Three sets of consequences are always observed: So here again we have a situation in which an individual has to act, but the subse- quent shared reaction turns the event into a group product. It is the joint witnessing of the event and Couples wants single mom reaction that makes it a group product.

One will also note anomalous behavior that can be explained only Adult singles dating in Blackburn one assumes that an authority issue is being worked out.

For example, the group will actively seek leadership by stating that some member should help the group to get moving, but then sys- tematically ignore or punish anyone who attempts Naked Ladies in Margate Florida lead.

One can understand this behavior if one remembers that feelings toward authority are always ambivalent and that the anger felt toward the staff member for not leading the group cannot be expressed directly if one feels dependent on the staff member. Reality Test and Catharsis. The group mem- bers will suddenly realize that they have been focusing heavily on the staff member and that, indeed, that person is not all-knowing and all- seeing and therefore probably does not, in fact, know what the group New Edgar mature women phone sex do.

With this insight comes the feeling of responsibility: Some work Lady wants casual sex Pepperell never achieve this state, remaining dependent on whatever formal authority is available and projecting magically onto it; but in the training situation, the emphasis on process analysis makes it very likely that the issue will be brought to the surface and dealt with.

A comparable process occurs in formally constituted groups, but it is less visible. Thus, early in the life of a company the entrepre- neur is viewed much more magically as the source of all wisdom, and only gradually is it discovered that he or she is only human and that the organization can function only if other members begin Cs co horny woman feel responsible for group outcomes as well.

But all this may occur implicitly and without very visible marker events. If such events occur, they will most likely be in the form of challenges of the leader or outright insubordination. How the group and the leader then handle the emotionally threatening event will determine, to a large extent, the norms around authority that will become opera- tive in the future.